3D printing – a variety of processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object. 3D printing is used in both rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing
Blow Molding – a method of fabrication in which a heated plastic mass is forced into the share of a mold cavity by internal gas pressure.
Cast Film – is a film made by depositing a layer of plastic, either molten, in solution, or in a dispersion, onto a surface, solidifying, and removing the film from the surface. Films can also be made from Extrusion.
Compression Molding – the method of molding a material already in a confined cavity by applying pressure and usually heat. This process if often used in closure manufacturing.
Extrusion Molding – a process in which heated plastic is forced through a shaping orifice (a die) in one continuously formed shape, as in film, sheet, rod or tubing
Injection Molding – the process of forming a material by forcing it, in a molten state and under pressure, into the cavity of a closed mold. This is the most common production method used with Hemp Plastics.
Rotational Molding – a molding process where pulverized resin is placed in the mold at high rotational speed to ensure resin dispersion. Once in place, the resin is baked in the mold to form the usable part. This process is used often to manufacture large, heavy plastic parts.
Thermoforming – a forming process in which a heated plastic sheet is molded through heat and pressure and trimmed to create a usable product. This process is often used in multi-layer packaging.
Thermoplastic – a plastic that repeatedly can be softened by heating and hardened by cooling. In the softened state can be shaped. 90% of plastics are produced in this form.
Thermoset – a plastic that, after having been cured by heat or other means, is substantially, infusible and insoluble.
Transfer Molding – a method of forming articles by fusing a plastic material in a chamber and then forcing essentially the whole mass into a hot mold where it solidifies.
Vacuum Forming – a forming process in which a heated plastic sheet is drawn against the mold surface by evacuating the air between it and the mold.
- As of 2018, 335 million tons of plastics are produced globally each year.
- 45% of all plastics are produced in the United States.
- 29% of plastics produced in the US are used for packaging (15% building, 14% consumer).
- The packaging market, in the United States alone is worth $100 billion, a quarter of the global market.
- In the United States over 60 billion pounds of plastic are discarded into the waste stream each year (from 4 billion in 1970). Most of this is in Municipal Solid Waste.
- One-half of all discarded plastic comes from packaging. Almost one-third comes from packaging that is discarded soon after use.
- Beach litter is 40-60 percent plastic, much of which often floats in from the sea. Such beach litter is hazardous to birds, fish and animals who die from ingesting it or becoming entangled in it.
- Wide-scale postconsumer recycling of plastics is relatively new. Modern plastics are becoming harder to recycle.
- The word plastic comes from the Greek plastikos, meaning able to be shaped.
- Biodegradable plastics are not new. In the biblical Book of Exodus, Moses’ mother built his ark from rushes, pitch, and slime, a composite that might now be called a fiber-reinforced bioplastic. Natural resins- like amber, shellac, and gutta percha have been mentioned throughout history, including during the Roman times and the Middle Ages.
- Plastics manufactured today, with few exceptions, are made from synthetic polymers. But polymers also occur in nature. They are produced by plants, animals and microorganisms through biochemical reactions.
- Plastics have successfully competed with other materials on account of their ‘low cost’. An example is a zipper. Previously made of metal, a plastic zipper performs as well as its predecessor. The lesser durability is not an issue as it often lasts long after the application using the zipper fails.
Hemp History Highlights
For nearly 3000 years Hemp has been our planet’s largest agricultural crop and the most important industry producing the fibre, paper, clothing, lighting fuel and medicine used by much of humanity. It is and has always been Earth’s’ most sustainable natural resource. With modern technological advances it is now possible to make over 20,000 types of products from medicine to houses to cellophane, dynamite and most importantly as an eco-friendly alternative to traditional plastics.
Pre Hemp Prohibition
|200 BC||First paper invented in China – is made from Hemp.|
|400 BC||Mummified Ying Pan man discovered in China wearing a painted mask made from Hemp – the earliest known Hemp Bioplastic.|
|768 BC||King Charles the Great encourages growing of Hemp throughout his empire.|
|1454||he Gutenberg Bible – the world’s first book printed on a moveable type printing press is printed on Hemp paper.|
|1533||King Henry 8th issued a royal proclamation which imposed a fine on any farmer that did not use some of his land for growing Hemp to supply the King’s Navy.|
|1619||America’s first Hemp law orders – all farmers MUST grow Hemp. Hemp is made a legal tender (ie. can be used to pay taxes)|
|1690||First American Paper Mill makes paper from Hemp.|
|1763||Additional laws in America make growing Hemp compulsory for all farmers.|
|1789||“Make the most of Indian Hemp Seed and sow it everywhere” – George Washington, 1st President of USA and Hemp Farmer.|
|1797||“We shall, by and by, want a world of Hemp more for our own consumption” – John Adams, 2nd President of USA and Hemp Farmer.|
|1801||“Hemp is of first necessity to the wealth and protection of the country – If people let the Government decide what foods they eat and what medicines they take, their bodies will soon be in as sorry a state as are the souls of those who live under Tyranny” – Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President of USA and Hemp Farmer.|
|1853||Levi Strauss & Co is founded in USA. The world’s first pair of jeans are made – from Hemp.|
|1897||Rudolph Diesel invents world’s first diesel engine which is designed to run on clean burning vegetable oils including Hemp Oil which does not cause pollution or create carbon buildup inside engines.|
|1930||Mellon, one of the most powerful bankers in USA. Mellon plus two other bankers Rockefeller and Carnegie had significant investments in Oil, Paper, Synthetic Fibre, Petrochemical Plastics and Pharmaceuticals – all of which were about to be made obsolete by technological advancements in Hemp processing.|
|1937||US Congress approves a bill that prohibits the cultivation of all Cannabis including Hemp.|
|1938||Popular Mechanics magazine article titled “New Billion Dollar Crop” announces the arrival of the new Hemp processing technology that was set to make Hemp America’s #1 commodity had it not been prohibited.|
|1941||Henry Ford finishes making a car built almost entirely from Hemp and which ran on clean burning Hemp fuel. The car being 30% lighter than steel cars therefore required less fuel. Its lightweight bioplastic body panels were many times stronger than steel – could not be dented with a sledge hammer. “Why use up the forests which were centuries in the making and the mines which required ages to lay down if we can get the equivalent of forest and mineral products in the annual growth of the Hemp Fields?” – Henry Ford|
|1942||US Government cannot take part in World War 2 without Hemp for military clothing and equipment so a campaign is launched to encourage and reward US farmers for growing Hemp with a PR video titled Hemp For Victory.|
|1945||At the end of World War 2 the US Government begins its campaign against Hemp and claims there never was a video called Hemp For Victory. When US soldiers return from Europe they are ordered to put their Hemp uniforms back on and are sent out to American farms to burn all the Hemp crops.|
|1961||Henry Anslinger attended the United Nations and persuaded the UN to have Hemp cultivation prohibited in 150 countries worldwide. As a consequence most of the world’s food, fibre, fuel and medicine went from being made organically by farmers to being produced chemically under the control of the Pharmaceutical and Petrochemical industries.|
Hemp Legalization Begins Again
|1996||Canada legalizes growing of Hemp which creates employment and hundreds of millions of dollars of revenue for the Canadian people.|
|2014||Section 7606 of the 2014 Farm Bill authorized hemp research and pilot programs by state departments of agriculture and institutions of higher education. Some states have licensed farmers to conduct pilot programs and research on hemp. In 2017 there were 19 states that allowed hemp to be grown.|